Wednesday, May 19, 2010

Amines and Amides

-have a nitrogen with carbon bonded to it

-Amides are used in nylon, kelvar, penicillin, proteins, LSD

Monday, May 17, 2010

Esters, Carboxylic Acids, Aldehydes

REVIEW from last class


R-O-R1(doesn't have to be the same)

R-F, R-Cl, R-Br


Aldehydes -change ending to '-al'
-attach a double bonded oxygen and a hydrogen to either end of the carbon chain

Carboxylic acids
-found in insect bites
-building blocks of fats/steroids
-change ending to '-oic'
-attach a double bonded oxygen and a hydroxide to either end of the carbon chain

-used as artificial flavoring for purfumes, synthetic fibers
-source of odour/flavour in fruits
-name the primary R with a -yl ending
-name the secondary R with -ate ending
-esters are formed through esterfication
- react a carboxylic acid with an alcohol

Thursday, May 13, 2010

Functional Groups

Today we had a quiz! Also we learnt about functional groups.

1) Halides
- Group 17 elements
-bromine(bromo), chlorine(chloro), fluorine(floro)
-you use this when you see bromine, chlorine or fluorine as a side chain to your carbon chain

2) Alcohols
- have an OH(hydroxyl) function group
-same rules as usual but change the ending to '-ol'

3) Ethers
-there is an oxygen atom between two carbon chains
-use side chain endings(-yl) for both chains followed by ether

4) Ketones
-double bonded oxygen
-change the ending to '-one'

Monday, May 10, 2010

Alkynes/ Cis and Trans/ Alycyclics/ Aromatics

Alkynes (triple bonds)
-use -yne ending after parent chain
-number using lowest possible number

Cis and Trans
-side chains cannot rotate around double bonds
-cis: same side of side chain
-trans: opposite side of side chain

-all the same naming rules apply
-add cyclo- to the name of the parent chain

-cyclohexene can have double bonds in its ring

wow okay this guy is kinda weird but he does a prett good job of explaining it so ill let him do so!

Wednesday, May 5, 2010

Continutation of Organic Chemistry

B. ALKENES (double bonds)
1. All the same rules for naming appy
2. Use the correct prefix and -ENE ending
3. Identify the location of the double bond using carbon numbers

Here is a website you can use to practice, the answer are here too!

1. Use the -YNE ending

For some more detailed notes, here's a link to an online tutor!!

Tuesday, May 4, 2010


- Organic Chemistry is the study of the carbon atom and its compounds.

- carbon compounds outnumber all other compounds combined.....
> carbon can form many different bonds
> the can have different arrangements
> can form long chains of carbon atoms

HydroCarbon Hierarchy - click here for a more in depth look

There are 3 types of chemical formulas
1) Molecular - eg C3H8
2) condensed structural - eg
3) structural

One molecular formula can represent several different compounds. These are called isomers
EG Alkanes

1. circle the largest carbon chain. name the chain with the appropriate prefix ane ending

2. locate any side chains by numbering the carbon chain. use lowest possible #s

3. name the side chain with appropriate prefix and yl ending

4. if there are more than one of the same alkyl side chain add the multiplier in front of the branch name


Friday, April 23, 2010

Hydrogen Bonding

k so last class we started learning about molecular polarity and intermolecular bonds, but we didn't get the chance to get to hydrogen bonds so thats what we talked about the most today

  • hydrogen bonding is a special type of dipole-dipole bond
  • it occurs between hydrogen and nitrogen, oxygen and flourine

H-N, H-O, H-F

now just to recap all the the types of bonding forces:

  • London Dispursion Force (L.D.F) is experienced by all molecules but is the weakest of bonds
  • Dipole-Dipole is only present in some molecules, and is stronger than LDF
  • Hydrogen Bonds are the strongest of all the molecular bonds and are only found in a couple of different molecules

one example we went through was putting some molecules in order of the strongest bond to the weakest bond. the ones we used were:

1. C2H5OH: 26 electrons and a bp of 78 degrees Celsius

2. CH3OH: 18 elestrons with a bp of 65 degrees Celsius

3. C2H6: 18 elesctrons with a bp of -89 degrees Celsius

4. CH4: 10 electrons with a bp of -161 degrees Celsius

now that we had finished talking about molecular bonds, we discussed ions in solutions for the rest of class

  • dissociation is the splitting of ionic solids into ions
  • there are multiple steps you must follow in writing a dissociation equation
  • determine the ions that are in your ionic solid and plit them up on the other side of the equation from your original solid
  • write (aq) next to the ions to show that they are now aqueous due to the fact they are dissovled in water
  • find the charge of each of the ions and write it
  • balance the equation using the charge of each ions to determine how many of them there should be

we went through some concentration examples that go back to our stoichiometry section, so its basically using our old knowledge to kind of figure out new examples. I won't write out the examples bacause they would just be WAY too confusing using blogger. but instead, i have an awesome video! YAY!

it says 20 second but its more like a minute and a half. still, this does a really good job of explaining hydrogen bonding!

thats all for now!